Expressing meaning in short functional text and simple essay in from of narrative, spoof, and hortatory exposition in relation to real life
1. Mengungkapkan makna dalam bentuk teks fungsional pendek (misalnya banner, poster, pamphlet, dll.) resmi dan tak resmi dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.
• Using grammar, vocabulary, punctuation, and spelling accurately
• Making banner, poster, or pamphlet
Preposition at, on, in (Aspect of grammar)
A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. In it, a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. For instance, when you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on," you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tend to be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). This whole phrase, in turn, takes on a modifying role, acting as an adjective or an adverb, locating something in time and space, modifying a noun, or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened.
Consider the professor's desk and all the prepositional phrases we can use while talking about it.
You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what's in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk.
All of this happens, of course, in time: during the class, before the class, until the class, throughout the class, after the class, etc. And the professor can sit there in a bad mood.
Those words in bold blue font are all prepositions. Some prepositions do other things besides locate in space or time — "My brother is like my father." "Everyone in the class except me got the answer." — but nearly all of them modify in one way or another. It is possible for a preposition phrase to act as a noun — "During a church service is not a good time to discuss picnic plans" or "In the South Pacific is where I long to be" — but this is seldom appropriate in formal or academic writing.
Is it any wonder that prepositions create such troubles for students for whom English is a second language? We say we are at the hospital to visit a friend who is in the hospital. We lie in bed but on the couch. We watch a film at the theater but on television. For native speakers, these little words present little difficulty, but try to learn another language, any other language, and you will quickly discover that prepositions are troublesome wherever you live and learn. This page contains some interesting (sometimes troublesome) prepositions with brief usage notes. To address all the potential difficulties with prepositions in idiomatic usage would require volumes, and the only way English language learners can begin to master the intricacies of preposition usage is through practice and paying close attention to speech and the written word. Keeping a good dictionary close at hand (to hand?) is an important first step.
Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in
We use at to designate specific times
• The train is due at 12:15 p.m.
We use on to designate days and dates.
• My brother is coming on Monday.
• We're having a party on the Fourth of July.
We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.
• She likes to jog in the morning.
• It's too cold in winter to run outside.
• He started the job in 1971.
• He's going to quit in August.
• Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in
• We use at for specific addresses.
Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in
We use at for specific addresses.
• Jake black lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.
We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.
• Her house is on Boretz Road.
And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).
• She lives in Durham.
• Durham is in Windham County.
• Windham County is in Connecticut.
Look at the following web sites for examples and exercises:
2. Mengungkapkan makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dalam teks berbentuk: narrative, spoof, dan hortatory exposition.
• Using simple past in sentences
• Using past continuous in sentences
• Using complex sentence in making story
• Producing a narrative, spoof, and hortatory exposition text
The Simple Past Tense
Verb ending in... How to make the simple past Examples
Change y to i, then add –ED try tried
One vowel + one consonant
(but NOT w or y) Double the consonant, then add -ED tap tapped
anything else including w
The formula for simple past tense
To be Statements + To be Statements - Questions?
I was I wasn't Was I?
He was He wasn't Was he?
She was She wasn't Was she?
It was It wasn't Was it?
You were You weren't Were you?
We were We weren't Were we?
They were They weren't Were they?
Regular Verb (to work) Statements
+ Regular Verb (to work) Statements
- Questions Short answer
+ Short answer
I worked. I didn't work. Did I work? Yes, I did. No, I didn't
He worked He didn't work. Did he work? Yes, he did. No, he didn't.
She worked She didn’t work Did she work? Yes, she did No, she didn’t
It worked It didn’t work Did it work? Yes, it did No. it didn’t
You worked You didn’t work Did you work? Yes, you did No, you didn’t
We worked We didn’t work Did we work? Yes, we did No. we didn’t
They worked They didn’t work Did they work? Yes, they did No, they didn’t
Simple Past Timeline
Beginning in the past ending in past
• Last year I took my exams.
• I got married in 1992.
It can be used to describe events that happened over a period of time in the past but not now.
• I lived in South Africa for two years.
The simple past tense is also used to talk about habitual or repeated actions that took place in the past.
• When I was a child we always went to the seaside on bank holidays.
Regular or irregular verbs
• You called Debbie
• Did you call Debbie?
• You did not call Debbie.
Complete List of Simple Past Forms
USE 1 Completed Action in the Past
Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
• I saw a movie yesterday.
• I didn't see a play yesterday.
• Last year, I traveled to Japan.
• Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
• Did you have dinner last night?
• She washed her car.
• He didn't wash his car.
USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions
We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
• I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
• He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
• Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?
USE 3 Duration in Past
The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. Duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
• I lived in Brazil for two years.
• Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
• They sat at the beach all day.
• They did not stay at the party the entire time.
• We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
• A: How long did you wait for them?
• B: We waited for one hour.
USE 4 Habits in the Past
The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
• I studied French when I was a child.
• He played the violin.
• He didn't play the piano.
• Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
• She worked at the movie theater after school.
• They never went to school, they always skipped class.
USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations
The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."
• She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
• He didn't like tomatoes before.
• Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
• People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.
IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First
Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.
• When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
• She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.
• I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
• You just called Debbie.
• Did you just call Debbie?
Exercises: cloze test
Exercise 1 (Click here)
Exercise 2 (Click here)
Exercise 3 (Click here)
Exercise 4 (Click here)
Exercise 5 (Click here)
Exercise 6 (Click here)
Exercise 7 (Click here)
Exercise 8 (Click here)
Exercise 9 (Click here)
Exercise 10 (Click here)
Exercise 11 (Click here)
Exercise 12 (Click here)
The Past Continuous Tense
The past continuous is grammatical aspect that expresses incomplete action in past time: it is non-habitual.
Formula for Past Continuous Tense:
Subject + (Was/Were) + (Verb1+ing) + Object + Modifier
• Farmers in Jati Bali were growing rice crops at 9 a.m yesterday.
• Some students were conducting research on vegetative plant propagations when I went to the agronomy laboratory two days ago.
• Transpiration was starting to increase at 8 a.m. this morning.
When should we use Past Continuous Tense?
1. Past Continuous Tense is used to say that something was happening around a particular time in the past. The action or state began before this particular time, but had not yet finished. The event is happening at a precise moment in the past.
• My daughter was watching TV at eight o’clock last night.
• She was copying the materials at 10 o’clock this morning.
• I was discussing English with my classmates at 2 p.m. last Friday.
• I was being busy at 8 o’clock yesterday morning.
• They were being very happy at 9 o’clock last Saturday night.
2. Past Continuous Tense is most often used to express an interrupted action expressed using the past simple. For example, Janet was talking on the phone when I arrived.
When + subject1 + simple past tense, subject2 + past continuous
Subject1 + past continuous + when + subject2 + simple past tense
Note: Kejadian/aktivitas yang menginterupsi dinyatakan dalam past tense dan berfungsi sebagai keterangan waktu. Jika ditempatkan di awal kalimat, sisipkan tanda koma sebelum main clause.
• When I came home, my daughter was watching TV.
• When I called him last night, he was playing card with his friends.
• When she screamed for help, we were chitchatting.
• When someone broke into our house, we were sleeping.
• I held my breath when somebody was behaving suspiciously in my backyard.
3. Past Continuous Tense is also used to express the two events that happen simultaneously in past time. Look at the formula bellow:
While + subject1 + past continuous, subject2 + past continuous
Subject1 + past continuous + while + subject2 + past continuous
• While I was typing this note, my family was watching TV in the family room.
• While the president was giving his speech, the audience was listening to him carefully.
• Male students were playing around while female ones were chitchatting.
• My roommate was snoring loudly while I was studying.
• We were smoking while we were drinking.
Negative Form for Past Continuous Tense
Bentuk negatif dari kalimat dalam Past Continuous Tense dibuat dengan menambahkan ‘not’ setelah be were/was, seperti yang terlihat dalam formula berikut:
Subject + (was/were) + not + (verb1+ing) + object + modifier
• My daughter was not watching TV at eight o’clock last night.
• She was not copying the materials at 10 o’clock this morning.
• I was not discussing English with my classmates at 2 p.m. last Friday.
• I was not being busy at 8 o’clock yesterday morning.
• They were not being very happy at 9 o’clock last Saturday night.
• When I came home, my daughter was not watching TV.
• When I called him last night, he was not playing card with his friends.
• When she screamed for help, we were not chitchatting.
• Someone broke into our house when we were not sleeping.
• I breathed well when somebody was not behaving suspiciously in my backyard.
• While I was not typing this note, we were watching TV in the family room.
• While the president was giving his speech, the audience was not listening to him carefully.
• Male students were not playing around while female ones were chitchatting.
• My roommate was not snoring loudly while I was studying.
• We were not smoking while we were not drinking.
Note: was not and were not can be abbreviated into wasn’t and weren’t. But the use of abbreviation is less informal.
Yes/No Questions for Past Continuous Tense
The formula of Yes/No Questions for Past Continuous Tense is as follow:
(Was/were) +subject + (verb1+ing) + object + modifier?
• Was your daughter watching TV at eight o’clock last night?
• Was she copying the materials at 10 o’clock this morning?
• Were you discussing English with your classmates at 2 p.m. last Friday?
• Were you being busy at 8 o’clock yesterday morning?
• Were they being very happy at 9 o’clock last Saturday night?
Modifier of time for Past Continuous Tense
From above examples, we can see that modifier of time for past continuous tense is in form of adverbial phrases, namely:
1. at + time + last night/two days ago/yesterday morning: at eight o’clock last night, at 10 this morning, etc.
2. when + simple past tense. For examples: when I came home, when I called him last night, etc
3. while + past continuous tense. For examples: while I was typing this note, while we were drinking, etc.
Past continuous tense shows an action that happens in the past during a period of time. The action takes place continuously in the past. In other words, the action is not completed yet, in past time. See the timeline bellow:
Past cont past time present time
Incomplete action Completed action
Exercise 13 (Click here)