Rabu, 21 Juli 2010

tugas tefl...

Standard Competency:
Expressing meaning in short functional text and simple essay in from of narrative, spoof, and hortatory exposition in relation to real life
1. Mengungkapkan makna dalam bentuk teks fungsional pendek (misalnya banner, poster, pamphlet, dll.) resmi dan tak resmi dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari. 
• Using grammar, vocabulary, punctuation, and spelling accurately
• Making banner, poster, or pamphlet
Preposition at, on, in (Aspect of grammar)
A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. In it, a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. For instance, when you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on," you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tend to be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). This whole phrase, in turn, takes on a modifying role, acting as an adjective or an adverb, locating something in time and space, modifying a noun, or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened.
Consider the professor's desk and all the prepositional phrases we can use while talking about it.
You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what's in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk.
All of this happens, of course, in time: during the class, before the class, until the class, throughout the class, after the class, etc. And the professor can sit there in a bad mood. 
Those words in bold blue font are all prepositions. Some prepositions do other things besides locate in space or time — "My brother is like my father." "Everyone in the class except me got the answer." — but nearly all of them modify in one way or another. It is possible for a preposition phrase to act as a noun — "During a church service is not a good time to discuss picnic plans" or "In the South Pacific is where I long to be" — but this is seldom appropriate in formal or academic writing.
Is it any wonder that prepositions create such troubles for students for whom English is a second language? We say we are at the hospital to visit a friend who is in the hospital. We lie in bed but on the couch. We watch a film at the theater but on television. For native speakers, these little words present little difficulty, but try to learn another language, any other language, and you will quickly discover that prepositions are troublesome wherever you live and learn. This page contains some interesting (sometimes troublesome) prepositions with brief usage notes. To address all the potential difficulties with prepositions in idiomatic usage would require volumes, and the only way English language learners can begin to master the intricacies of preposition usage is through practice and paying close attention to speech and the written word. Keeping a good dictionary close at hand (to hand?) is an important first step.
Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in
 We use at to designate specific times
• The train is due at 12:15 p.m.
 We use on to designate days and dates.
• My brother is coming on Monday.
• We're having a party on the Fourth of July.
 We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.
• She likes to jog in the morning.
• It's too cold in winter to run outside.
• He started the job in 1971.
• He's going to quit in August.
• Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in
• We use at for specific addresses.
Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in
 We use at for specific addresses.
• Jake black lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.
 We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.
• Her house is on Boretz Road.
 And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).
• She lives in Durham.
• Durham is in Windham County.
• Windham County is in Connecticut.
Look at the following web sites for examples and exercises:

Basic competency:
2. Mengungkapkan makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dalam teks berbentuk: narrative, spoof, dan hortatory exposition. 
• Using simple past in sentences
• Using past continuous in sentences
• Using complex sentence in making story
• Producing a narrative, spoof, and hortatory exposition text

The Simple Past Tense

The simple past tense is one of the most common tenses in English. Its form is the same with all subjects. It is used to talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. You state when it happened using a time adverb. With most verbs, the simple past is created simply by adding -ED. However, with some verbs, you need to add -D or change the ending a little, but irregular verb forms have to be learned. Here are the rules:
Verb ending in... How to make the simple past Examples

 Add -D  
 live lived
date dated
Consonant +y  
 Change y to i, then add –ED try tried
cry cried
One vowel + one consonant
(but NOT w or y) Double the consonant, then add -ED tap tapped
commit committed
anything else including w 
 Add -ED  
 boil boiled
fill filled
hand handed
show showed

The formula for simple past tense
To be Statements + To be Statements - Questions?
I was I wasn't Was I?
He was He wasn't Was he?
She was She wasn't Was she?
It was It wasn't Was it?
You were You weren't Were you?
We were We weren't Were we?
They were They weren't Were they?

Regular Verb (to work) Statements
+ Regular Verb (to work) Statements
- Questions Short answer 
+ Short answer
I worked. I didn't work. Did I work? Yes, I did. No, I didn't
He worked He didn't work. Did he work? Yes, he did. No, he didn't.
She worked She didn’t work Did she work? Yes, she did No, she didn’t
It worked It didn’t work Did it work? Yes, it did No. it didn’t
You worked You didn’t work Did you work? Yes, you did No, you didn’t
We worked We didn’t work Did we work? Yes, we did No. we didn’t
They worked They didn’t work Did they work? Yes, they did No, they didn’t

Simple Past Timeline

Beginning in the past ending in past
  I did 
  (Completed action)
For example:
• Last year I took my exams.
• I got married in 1992.
It can be used to describe events that happened over a period of time in the past but not now.
• I lived in South Africa for two years.
The simple past tense is also used to talk about habitual or repeated actions that took place in the past.
For example:
• When I was a child we always went to the seaside on bank holidays.
Regular or irregular verbs 
• You called Debbie
• Did you call Debbie?
• You did not call Debbie.
Complete List of Simple Past Forms
USE 1 Completed Action in the Past 
Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
• I saw a movie yesterday.
• I didn't see a play yesterday.
• Last year, I traveled to Japan.
• Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
• Did you have dinner last night? 
• She washed her car.
• He didn't wash his car.
USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions 
We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on. 
• I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
• He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
• Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs? 
USE 3 Duration in Past 
The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. Duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
• I lived in Brazil for two years.
• Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
• They sat at the beach all day.
• They did not stay at the party the entire time. 
• We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
• A: How long did you wait for them?
• B: We waited for one hour.
USE 4 Habits in the Past
The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc. 
• I studied French when I was a child.
• He played the violin.
• He didn't play the piano. 
• Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? 
• She worked at the movie theater after school.
• They never went to school, they always skipped class.
USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations
The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."
• She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
• He didn't like tomatoes before. 
• Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
• People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past. 

IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First
Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.
• When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
• She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.
• I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
• You just called Debbie.
• Did you just call Debbie?
Exercises: cloze test
Exercise 1 (Click here)
Exercise 2 (Click here)
Exercise 3 (Click here)
Exercise 4 (Click here)
Exercise 5 (Click here)
Exercise 6 (Click here)
Exercise 7 (Click here)
Exercise 8 (Click here)
Exercise 9 (Click here)
Exercise 10 (Click here)
Exercise 11 (Click here)
Exercise 12 (Click here)

The Past Continuous Tense
The past continuous is grammatical aspect that expresses incomplete action in past time: it is non-habitual. 
Formula for Past Continuous Tense:
Subject + (Was/Were) + (Verb1+ing) + Object + Modifier
• Farmers in Jati Bali were growing rice crops at 9 a.m yesterday.
• Some students were conducting research on vegetative plant propagations when I went to the agronomy laboratory two days ago. 
• Transpiration was starting to increase at 8 a.m. this morning. 
When should we use Past Continuous Tense?
1. Past Continuous Tense is used to say that something was happening around a particular time in the past. The action or state began before this particular time, but had not yet finished. The event is happening at a precise moment in the past.
• My daughter was watching TV at eight o’clock last night.
• She was copying the materials at 10 o’clock this morning.
• I was discussing English with my classmates at 2 p.m. last Friday.
• I was being busy at 8 o’clock yesterday morning.
• They were being very happy at 9 o’clock last Saturday night. 
2. Past Continuous Tense is most often used to express an interrupted action expressed using the past simple. For example, Janet was talking on the phone when I arrived. 
When + subject1 + simple past tense, subject2 + past continuous
Subject1 + past continuous + when + subject2 + simple past tense
Note: Kejadian/aktivitas yang menginterupsi dinyatakan dalam past tense dan berfungsi sebagai keterangan waktu. Jika ditempatkan di awal kalimat, sisipkan tanda koma sebelum main clause.
• When I came home, my daughter was watching TV.
• When I called him last night, he was playing card with his friends.
• When she screamed for help, we were chitchatting. 
• When someone broke into our house, we were sleeping.
• I held my breath when somebody was behaving suspiciously in my backyard.
3. Past Continuous Tense is also used to express the two events that happen simultaneously in past time. Look at the formula bellow:
While + subject1 + past continuous, subject2 + past continuous
Subject1 + past continuous + while + subject2 + past continuous
• While I was typing this note, my family was watching TV in the family room. 
• While the president was giving his speech, the audience was listening to him carefully. 
• Male students were playing around while female ones were chitchatting. 
• My roommate was snoring loudly while I was studying.
• We were smoking while we were drinking.
Negative Form for Past Continuous Tense
Bentuk negatif dari kalimat dalam Past Continuous Tense dibuat dengan menambahkan ‘not’ setelah be were/was, seperti yang terlihat dalam formula berikut:
Subject + (was/were) + not + (verb1+ing) + object + modifier
• My daughter was not watching TV at eight o’clock last night.
• She was not copying the materials at 10 o’clock this morning.
• I was not discussing English with my classmates at 2 p.m. last Friday.
• I was not being busy at 8 o’clock yesterday morning.
• They were not being very happy at 9 o’clock last Saturday night. 
• When I came home, my daughter was not watching TV.
• When I called him last night, he was not playing card with his friends.
• When she screamed for help, we were not chitchatting. 
• Someone broke into our house when we were not sleeping.
• I breathed well when somebody was not behaving suspiciously in my backyard.
• While I was not typing this note, we were watching TV in the family room.
• While the president was giving his speech, the audience was not listening to him carefully.
• Male students were not playing around while female ones were chitchatting. 
• My roommate was not snoring loudly while I was studying.
• We were not smoking while we were not drinking.
Note: was not and were not can be abbreviated into wasn’t and weren’t. But the use of abbreviation is less informal.
Yes/No Questions for Past Continuous Tense
The formula of Yes/No Questions for Past Continuous Tense is as follow:
(Was/were) +subject + (verb1+ing) + object + modifier?
• Was your daughter watching TV at eight o’clock last night?
• Was she copying the materials at 10 o’clock this morning?
• Were you discussing English with your classmates at 2 p.m. last Friday?
• Were you being busy at 8 o’clock yesterday morning?
• Were they being very happy at 9 o’clock last Saturday night?
Modifier of time for Past Continuous Tense
From above examples, we can see that modifier of time for past continuous tense is in form of adverbial phrases, namely:
1. at + time + last night/two days ago/yesterday morning: at eight o’clock last night, at 10 this morning, etc.
2. when + simple past tense. For examples: when I came home, when I called him last night, etc
3. while + past continuous tense. For examples: while I was typing this note, while we were drinking, etc.
Past continuous tense shows an action that happens in the past during a period of time. The action takes place continuously in the past. In other words, the action is not completed yet, in past time. See the timeline bellow:
Past cont past time present time
Incomplete action Completed action
Exercise 13 (Click here)

Rabu, 05 Mei 2010


1. Introduction
Communication will be running well if we use a medium. The medium that we use in communication is always the language. Language is many things; it can be a system of communication, a medium for thought, vehicle for literary expression, a matter for political controversy, a catalyst for nation building (O’Grady & Dobrovolsky, 1989: 1 in Imansyah, 2008: 1).
The existence of language can’t be separated from human life. It can be seen from the fact that all activities related to interaction among people necessitate a language. Language is an important means of communication. Language reflects thinking; obviously we can’t say a sentence until we have first thought of it. Often our thinking gets mixed with emotions and our reasons become loaded with desires, wishes, prejudices, and opinions. The kind of thinking we do is our business until we try to persuade someone else to agree to our point of view; then that thinking becomes another’s business (Meade, et.al, 1961: 94).
Brown (1980) states that language is central to all communities of human beings. Holmes (1992) states that every language represents the temple in which the speaker soul’s is his/her devote. It seems that everything related to human life in society it involves language because it is through the language that interaction among tribes, ethnics groups, and religions can happen. An affirmation on the theory of language relativity which was postulated by Sapir and Whorf maintained in that language is the national identity (Rampung, 2005). The forms and styles of language that people speak are signified by individual identity. Burn, et. al. (1984) view language as a cement of society, allowing people to live, work and play together, to tell truth or lies, and to have knowledge and science.
The scope and diversity of human thought and experience place great demands on language. Because communication is not restricted to a fixed set of topics, language must o something more than provide a package of a ready-made message. It must enable us to produce and understand new words, phrases, and sentences as the need arises. In short, human language must be creative-allowing novelty and innovation in response to new thoughts, experiences, and situation (O’Grady & Dobrovolsky, 1989: 1).
Language frees humans from the limits of time and place. It allows us to create culture. The Wright brothers' successful flight did not come just from their own personal efforts. They built their airplane according to principles of flight already existing in American culture. Through language they could read, discuss, and recombine existing ideas and technology. Equipped with language, humans can pass their experiences, ideas, and knowledge to others. Although it may take time and repetition, children can be taught the dangers of fire and heights without being burned or toppling down stairs. This process of social learning, of course, applies to other cultural patterns as well, such as eating, showing patriotism, or staying awake in class.
According to Edward Sapir (1929) and Benjamin Whorf (1956), language is our guide to reality. How we think about a thing relates to the number and complexity of words available to describe that thing. In effect, our perceptions of the world depend in part on the particular language we have learned. Since languages differ, perceptions differ as well. This theory is known as the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, or the hypothesis of linguistic relativity. What can vocabulary tell you about a culture? When something is important to a society, its language will have many words to describe it. The importance of time in American culture is reflected in the many words that describe time intervals such as nanosecond, millisecond, moment, minute, hour, era, interim, recurrent, century, light-year, afternoon, eternal, annual, meanwhile, and regularly, just to name a few. When something is unimportant to people, they may not have even one word for it. When Christian missionaries first went to Asia, they were dismayed because the Chinese language contained no word for sin. Other missionaries were no less distressed to learn that Africans and Polynesians had no word to express the idea of a single, all-powerful God. While English has only a few words that describe snow, the Inuit (Eskimo) language has over twenty. Does the hypothesis of linguistic relativity mean we are prisoners of our language?
Even if our view of the world is shaped largely by language, we are not forever trapped by our own language. Exposure to another language or to new words can alter a person's perception of the world. (This is one reason why it is important to avoid using racist slurs and stereotypical labels.) People can begin to view the world differently as they learn a new language or vocabulary. However, most people do confine themselves to the language and vocabulary they learned from birth. They tend not to change their views of the world. You can either expand or limit your outlook, depending upon how you use language.
Language, like other forms, has to be appropriate to the speaker using it. That is why, in many communities, men and women’s speech is different. In other words, language varies not only according to the social characteristics of the speaker, such as social class, age, sex, and ethnic group, but also according to the social context in which he finds himself. The same speaker uses different linguistic varieties in different situation, and for different purposes. 
From the above elaboration, we can say that the context in communication is divided into two categories. The first, context based on the social characteristics of the speaker. They can be social class, age, sex, and ethnic group. The second, context based on the social context of the speaker. They can be relationship/relative statues such as kinship relationship, intimacy, and familiarity.
These two contexts play an important role in deciding the verbal repertoire (the totally linguistic varieties used in different situation and for different purposes) in communication. According to Hudson and Ferguson (Wardhaugh, 2002: 25), language variety is a specific set of linguistic items or human speech patterns (sounds, words, grammatical features) which can uniquely associate with some external factors (a geographical area or a social group). There are six types of linguistic varieties in communication. They are dialect, accent, register, style, code-switching, and diglossia (Trudgil, ). 
Related to elaboration above, the writer will try to figure out and exemplify dialect, accent, and code switching as language varieties. 
2. Discussion
a. Dialect
Dialect is language varieties that are linguistically and generally and also politically linked to a standardized language variety (Akmajian et. al, 1986; Luhman, 1990). Term dialect has generally been used to refer to a subordinate variety of language. For example, we are accustomed to saying the English language has many dialects. These dialects may be of different kind. A regional dialect is a variety associated with a place. Dialects of a language tend to differ from more from one another the more remote they are from one another geographically. In this respect, the study of dialects or dialectology has to do with boundaries, which often coincide with geographical features such as rivers and mountains (Romaine, 1994: 2). Boundaries are, however, often of a social nature, for example, between different social class groups. In this case, we may speak of social dialects. Social dialects say who we are and regional dialects where we come from.
All people in the same place can talk to each other and for the most part understand each other. Yet not two speak exactly alike. Some differences are due to the age, sex, state of health, size, personality, emotional state, and personal idiosyncrasies (Fromkin, Rodman, Collins, and Blair; 1990: 245). That each person speaks somewhat differently form all others is shown by our ability to recognize acquaintances by hearing them talk. The unique characteristic of the language of an individual speaker are referred to as the speaker’s idiolect. 
It is not always easy to decide whether the systemic differences between two speech communities reflect two dialects or two languages. A rule of thumb definition can be used: when dialects become mutually unintelligible-when the speakers of one dialect group can no longer understand the speakers of another dialect groups-those dialect become different languages. However, to define mutual intelligible is itself a difficult task.
Beyond these individual differences, the language of a group of people may show regular variations from that used by other groups of speaker of that language. When the English of speaker in different geographical regions and from different social groups shows systemic differences, the groups are said to speak different dialects of the same language. The dialect of a single language may thus be defined as mutually intelligible forms of a language that differ in systemic ways from each other.
There are two kinds of dialect; they can be regional dialect and social dialect. Regional dialect is geographically based. It means that a dialect that differs because of geographical area. The differences can be in terms of pronunciation, choice of words, and syntax. Sasaknese, Lombok, for instance, there exist five different regional dialects (Toir, 1993).. They are:
1. Ngeno-Ngene “that-this” dialect which is used by people around Aikmel, Pringgabaya, Sembalun, Rempung, and Selong, located in East Lombok.
2. Nggeto-Nggete “that-this” dialect which is used by people around Suralaga, Wanasaba, Sembalun Lawang, Sembalun Bumbung, and Ds. Lekong, located in East Lombok.
3. Meriaq-Meriqu “that-this” dialect which is used by people around Pujut, Bonkerok, and Batujai, located in central and southern part Lombok.
4. Kuto-Kute “that-this” dialect which is used by people around Aikmel, Pringgabaya, Sembalun, Rempung, and Selong, located in East Lombok.
5. Meno-Mene “that-this” dialect which is used by people around Pejanggik area and the surrounding areas, located in West Lombok.
These five dialects lead to some variation of lexical item is Sasak community. These can be seen in table bellow:
Dialect Kemarin Saya datang bicara rumah kamu sudah pergi
Meriak-Meriku uiq Aku leto baraqke balen side uah Lalo
Ngeno-Ngene Rubin Kami Dateng Bebadaq Balen Epe Wah Lalo
Kuto-Kute Tebin Kung Ketoq Ongkat Balen Diq Uah Injah
Meno-Mene Uiq Aku Leto Baraqke Bale Side Uah Lalo
Nggeto-Nggete Terbin Ku Dateng Rukat balem Epe Saweq Lalo

The table indicates that variants of lexical items emerge in several varieties. The adverb of time ‘kemarin’ for instance, is rubin in Ngeno-Ngene dialect, and terbin in Nggeto-Nggete, as well as Kuto-Kete and uiq in remaining varieties. The same applies to 1st person pronoun which varies between kami in Ngeno-Ngene and kung in Kuto-Kete, or ku in some others.a significant variation also occurs in the verb leto ‘come’ for both Meriaq-Meriqu and Meno-Mene, ketoq in Kuto-Kete, and dateng in Ngeno-Ngene.
While in Bima, there also exists regional dialect. They can be dialect of sila, dialect of madapangga, dialect of rasa na’e, dialect of dompu, dialect of wera, and so on. In Sila dialect, we can say long bean as bue, but in dialect Dompu, the term long bean is known as kalanggo. In Wera dialect, word mbonga means lie, then in dialect Sila and others, mbonga means raba (dam). In Madapangga dialect, they avoid to say nadu as spinach, as other dialects do because nadu in Madapengga dialect means women’s genital.
The other type of dialect is social dialect. If regional dialect is geographically based, social dialect originates among dialect social groups and are related to a variety of factors, the principal ones apparently being social class, religion, and ethnicity. In Bali, for instance, caste, one of the clearest of all social differentiators, quite often determine which variety of a language a speaker uses. Take a look at the examples bellow:
Brahmana Ksatria Weisya Sudra Meaning
Ngrayunang Ngajeng Nunas Megaar Eat 
Mijil Metu Embas Lekad Born
Ledang Arsa Ila Liang Gembira 
Lubda Libya Lali Engsap Forget 
Sregek Gelis Gangsar Enggal Hurry 
Surup Wengi Peteng Sanja Afternoon 
Weruh Pascad Wikan Dueg Smart 
Menggah Bendu Berangti Gedeg Angry 
Avis Makolem Sirep Pules Sleep 
Taken from a teacher of Bali language

As well as in Bali, Bimanese also have their own social dialect besides regional dialect. The social dialect of Bimanese reflected in the usage of bahasa kerajaan which is inherited by Sambori people, in district of Lambitu. Sambori people tend to use some vocabularies/words that are uncommon for common people. These words are used to use by people in Bima kingdom. Those words can be:
Sambori Bimanese in general Meaning
Lima Rima Hand
Po’o Tuta Head
Out Maru Sleep
Langge Edi Foot
M’nga ngaha Eat
Ďangga lampa Walk
To’o Doho Sit
Wiro Viko Ear
Palai Rai Run
Paka Wangga Tight
Le’a Paki Throw
Mate Made Die
Ďiu Ndeu Bathing
b. Accent
Regional phonological or phonetic distinctions are often referred to as different accents. A person in Indonesia is said to have a Javanese accent, a Betawi accent, a Balinese accent, a Sasaknese accent, a Bimanese accent, a Batak accent, and so on. Thus, accent refers to the characteristics of speech that convey the information about the speaker’s dialect, which may reveal in what country or what par t of the country the speaker grew up or to which sociolinguistic group the speaker belongs. People in Mataram, NTB, often refer to someone as having a bimanese accent and Sasaknese accent.
The term accent is also used to refer to the speech of someone who speaks a language non-natively. For example, a Bimanese speaking Indonesian is described as having a Bimanese accent. In this sense, accent refers to phonological differences or interference from different language spoken elsewhere.
a. Accent of Bimanese
Mau ke mana?
When Bimanese pronounce phoneme /ε/, they tend to pronounce it as /ē/. Just like when they pronounce words such mengapa, menangis, and so on, they will not pronounce them as / mεŋaрa/, and /mεnaŋis/, but as / mēŋaрa/ and /mēnaŋis/. They tend to change the mid front short phoneme /ε/ as mid front long phoneme /ē/. Besides, Bimanese also tend to change the voiced velar nasal /ŋ/ as voiced alveolar nasal /n/, and vice versa. For example, Bimanese will pronounce word yang as /j٨n/, not as /j٨ŋ/. Another phenomena related to Bimanese accent is that they sometimes do not produce the last sounds of consonant. Just take a look at the examples below:
Melati becomes /mēlati/
Menari becomes /mēnari/
Belajar becomes /bēlajar/
Makan becomes /makaŋ/
Pemukiman becomes /pēmukima/
Barang becomes /baran/
Enak becomes /ena/
Ngantuk becomes /ŋantu/
b. Accent of Sasaknese
Different from Bimanese, Sasaknese tend to pronounce phoneme voiceless bilabial stop /p/ as voiceless labiodentals fricative /f/, and vice versa. For example, word pilek will be pronounced as /filεk/, not as /pilεk/, and word flu will be pronounced as /plu/. Other examples are:
Pusing is pronounced as /fusing/ not as /pusing/
Pening is pronounced as /fening/ not as /pening/
Pikir is pronounced as /fikir/ not as /pikir/
Paksa is pronounced as /faksa/ not as /paksa/
Fulus is pronounced as /pulus/ not as /fulus/
Feeling is pronounced as /piling/ not as /filing/
Perfect is pronounced as /perpek/ not as /perfek/
c. Accent of Balinese
In Balinese accent, they tend to pronounce the voiceless alveolar stop /t/ and voiced alveolar stop /d/ as palatal sound, not as alveolar. They make their tongue tip touch the hard palate when they pronounce these sounds. Words toko, sepatu, bata, daun, dalang, and so on can exemplify this phenomenon in Balinese accent.
d. Accent of Javanese
If in Balinese accent, they change alveolar sounds (/t/ and /d/) with palatal sounds, in Javanese, they produce all stop sounds as fricative sounds. Fricative sounds such as /p/ and /d/ can exemplify this phenomenon. They will pronounce panco and dalam as /phanco/ as in /phil/, not as /panco/ as in /pil/, and /dhalam/, not as /dalam/.
c. Code-Switching
Code-switching is a linguistics term denoting the concurrent use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation. Multilinguals, people who speak more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages in conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching is the syntactically and phonologically appropriate use of more than one linguistic variety.
Code-switching is distinct from other language contact phenomena, such as borrowing, pidgins and creoles, loan translation (calques), and language transfer (language interference). Speakers form and establish a pidgin language when two or more speakers who do not speak a common language form an intermediate, third language. On the other hand, speakers practice code-switching when they are each fluent in both languages. Code mixing is a thematically related term, but the usage of the terms code-switching and code-mixing varies. Some scholars use either term to denote the same practice, while others apply code-mixing to denote the formal linguistic properties of said language-contact phenomena, and code-switching to denote the actual, spoken usages by multilingual persons.
In the 1940s and the 1950s many scholars called code-switching a sub-standard language usage. Since the 1980s, however, most scholars have recognized it is a normal, natural product of bilingual and multilingual language use.
Code-switching relates to, and sometimes indexes social-group membership in bilingual and multilingual communities. Some sociolinguists describe the relationships between code-switching behaviours and class, ethnicity, and other social positions. In addition, scholars in interactional linguistics and conversation analysis have studied code-switching as a means of structuring talk in interaction. Analyst Peter Auer suggests that code-switching does not simply reflect social situations, but that it is a means to create social situations.
Code-switching mostly occurs where the syntaxes of the languages align in a sentence; thus, it is uncommon to switch from English to French after an adjective and before a noun, because, in French, adjectives usually follow nouns. Even unrelated languages often align syntactically at a relative clause boundary or at the boundary of other sentence sub-structures.
Linguists have made significant effort toward defining the difference between borrowing (loanword usage) and code-switching; generally, borrowing occurs in the lexicon, while code-switching occurs at either the syntax level or the utterance-construction level.
Apple (in Chaer and Agustina, 2004: 107) defines code-switching as a symptom of linguistics usage that switches over because of the situation change. This concept emphasizes that situation can be an influential factor that leads a speaker or a speech community to switch to another code in daily interaction. 
Hymes gives a scope about code switching, that is, code-switching has become a common term for alternate use of two or more languages. Code-switching is also seen as a bilingual replacement or switchover of two languages or more, from various languages, or even a manner from some styles. Similarly, Kridalaksana (1993: 9) state that code-switching is the use of other language variety or other language to adapt with role or other situation, or caused by other participants. Grosjean (1982: 145) limits the concept of code switching as the alternate use two or more in the same utterance or conversation. This opinion seems so general that there is not any clear distinction between the concept of code-switching and that of code-mixing in relation to linguistics forms. This is caused by the difference language grammatical system. The language grammatical system between one language and each other is different. For instance, the phrase of grammatical system in Indonesian is different from phrase of grammatical system in English.
In general, the concept of code-switching that have been advocated by the linguists, basically emphasize the same underlying point. Both Hymes (1979: 103) and Kridalaksana (1993: 9) point out that code-switching is related to the use of two or more languages in communication. 
There are many types of code-switching committed by the speakers in a communication. Grosjean (1982; 145) classifies code-switching into three types. They are intra-sentential code-switching, inter-sentential code-switching, and inter-personal code-switching. Intra-sentential code-witching is switchover from one code to others that happens in one sentence. It occurs within a sentence or a clause. It means that the switchover of code happens at the level of clause. Take a look at the examples in Bimanese and Sasaknese switch in Indonesia below: 
Mada kan wati mungkin weha ntau dou tanpa seijin dou mantau.
It’s impossible for me to take yours without asking any permission. 
Mada kan dou taho, jadi pasti rajin solat
I am a good boy, so I do prayer everytime
Aro kembe ja tie, anda ini gimana sih?
Inter-sentential code-switching is switchover from one code to another that happens in more than one sentence. It occurs outside the sentence or the clause level (i.e. at sentence or clause boundaries). It means that switchover happens at the sentence level. Take a look at the examples bellow:
Mada kan laina dou mpanga. Ngapain juga saya ambil
Di au kaija ku weha ntau nggomi. Toh nggak penting itu juga.
Sudah lama nggak ketemu sama si Amir. Brembe kabarne?
The first and second examples above are Bimanese that switch in Indonesia. Then, in the last example, Indonesia switches into Sasaknese
Inter-personal code-switching is switchover that happens at speaker’s utterance because it comes from the other participants. It means that switchover happens at situation context. Take a look at the examples bellow:
Bimanese A: Au kamanae di mpa’a ngaha ndaike?
 A: Au si ne’emu nggomi?
 A: Gimana kalau kita makan bakso saja?
 B: Boleh juga tu bang.
Sasaknese A: Ape tegawek nani?
 A: Ape melekm side?
 A: Cari makan yuk?
 B: Asik tuh
Thus, according to Grosjean (1982), inter-personal code-switching is code-switching that happens at two interlocutor utterances. It means that code-switching can also happen at interlocutor utterance when making communication with other people. Code-switching that happens at interlocutor utterance is called as intra-personal code-switching. Take a look at the examples bellow:
Bimanese A: Au kamanae di mpa’a ngaha ndaike?
 A: enaknya kita makan apa’an nih?
Sasaknese A: Ape tegawek nani?
 A: apa nih yang harus kita kerjakan sekarang?
Transfer of code-switching from the first utterance in Bimanese and Sasaknese to the second utterance in Indonesian includes intra-personal code-switching. Code-switching above is committed by the first speaker by repeating the statement in the first utterance to the second utterance.
Similarly, in line with Grosjean above, Poplack (in Romaine: 122) divides code-switching from the aspect of textual and its distribution in sentence into three types. They are tag code-switching, inter-sentential ode-switching, and intra-sentential code-switching. Tag code-switching is code-switching which is happening at the end of a sentence. It is the switching of either a tag phrase or a word, or both, from language-B to language-A, (common intra-sentential switches). This code intrinsically functions to give emphasis or affirmative at one particular utterance, either at the same language or at different language. Take a look at the examples bellow:
Ayo kita come on (let’s go)
Maira ta cabut (let’s go)
Apa kabar, batur? (What’s up, bro?)
The first example above is an Indonesian language that is switched in English at the end. This always happens in informal situation, which always done by teenagers and register of anak gaul. As well as the first example, the second example also happens in an informal situation in Bimanese, in which register anak gaul are common with this switch. At the last examples, in Sasaknese, the switch occurs in an informal situation, too. 
3. Conclusion
Every person has an individual way of speaking. The language used by a group of speakers may also show systemic differences called dialect. The dialects of a language are the mutually intelligible forms of the language that differ in systemic ways from each other. Dialects develop and are reinforced because languages change, and the changes that occur in one group or area may differ from those that occur in another. Regional dialects and social dialects develop for this reason. Regional dialect is a variety of language in one part of the country, while social dialect is variety of language spoken by people belonging to a particular social class.
There are five regional dialects in Sasaknese, such as Ngeno-Ngene dialect, Nggeto-Nggete dialect, Meriaq-Meriqu dialect, Kuto-Kute dialect, and Meno-Mene dialect. While in Bimanese, there are dialect of sila, dialect of madapangga, dialect of rasa na’e, dialect of dompu, and dialect of wera as its regional dialects. Beside regional dialects, Bimanese also has social dialect. It is reflected by Sambori people which inherit the language that used to be used by people in Bima kingdom.
Dialects differences include phonological or pronunciation differences, vocabulary distinction, and syntactic rule differences. The differences between dialects are not as great as the similarities, permitting speakers of different dialects to communicate with each other. In Indonesia, 
The differences in phonology and pronunciation are called accent. Accent is the cumulative auditory effect of those features of pronunciation which identify where a person is from, regionally, or socially. It is a particular way which tells the listener something about the speaker background. A person’s pronunciation may show the region or country they come from. For instance, people in Mataram are said to have a Bimanese accent, a Sasaknese accent, a Balinese accent, or Sumbawanese accent.
Code-switching is the events of using of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation. According to Grosjean (1982: 145), there are three types of code-switching committed by the speakers in a communication. They are intra-sentential code-switching, inter-sentential code-switching, and inter-personal code-switching. Intra-sentential code-witching occurs within a sentence or a clause. Inter-sentential switching occurs outside the sentence or the clause level (i.e. at sentence or clause boundaries). Inter-personal code-switching is switchover that happens at speaker’s utterance because it comes from the other participants.


Brown, H. 2005. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching. USA: prentice hall. Inc 
Burns, P. et.al. 1993. Teaching reading in elementary school. New Jersey: Houghstom Mifflin Comp. inc.
Grosjean, Francois. 1982. Life with Two Languages. London: Harvard University. Press.
Gumpers, J.J. 1982. Language and social Groups. Standford: standford University Press.
Holmes, janet. 1992. An introduction to Sociolinguistics. Second edition. London: WIP OLP.
Hymes, Dell. 1979. “on Communicative Competence” In J.B Pride and Janet Holmes. (eds). Sociolinguistics. Harmondswords. Penguin
Imansyah. 2008. The Grammatical Function of {na} and {ku} in Bimanese. A Case Study of Bimanese Spoken in Sila. FKIP UNRAM
Kridalaksana, Harimurti. 1993. Kamus Linguuistik (edidi ke tiga). Jakarta: Gramedia
Rampung, Bone. 2005. Fatamorgana Bahasa. Flores: Nusa Indah
Richard, meade, et.al. 1991. Effective English. Chicago:allyn and Bacon. Inc
Romaine, Suzane. 1995. Language in Society: An Introduction in Sociolinguistics. Oxford:Blackwell
_______________. 1988. Bilingualism. New York: basilblackwell.
Toir, Nazir, et.al. 1993. Metode Penelitian Ilmiah. Ghalia Indonesia


A. Summary of Five Hypotheses about Second Language Acquisition
Second language acquisition theory seeks to quantify how and by what processes individuals acquire a second language. The predominant theory of second language acquisition was developed by the University of Southern California’s Steven Krashen. Krashen is a specialist in language development and acquisition, and his influential theory is widely accepted in the language learning community. 
There are five main components of Krashen’s theory. Each of the components relates to a different aspect of the language learning process. The five components are as follows:
• The Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
• The Monitor Hypothesis
• The Natural Order Hypothesis
• The Input Hypothesis
• The Affective Filter Hypothesis

1. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
This hypothesis actually fuses two fundamental theories of how individuals learn languages. Krashen has concluded that there are two systems of language acquisition that are independent but related: the acquired system and the learned system. 
The acquired system relates to the unconscious aspect of language acquisition. When people learn their first language by speaking the language naturally in daily interaction with others who speak their native language, this acquired system is at work. In this system, speakers are less concerned with the structure of their utterances than with the act of communicating meaning. Krashen privileges the acquired system over the learned system.
The learned system relates to formal instruction where students engage in formal study to acquire knowledge about the target language. For example, studying the rules of syntax is part of the learned system.
2. The Monitor Hypothesis
The monitor hypothesis seeks to clarify how the acquired system is affected by the learned system. When second language learners monitor their speech, they are applying their understanding of learned grammar to edit, plan, and initiate their communication. This action can only occur when speakers have ample time to think about the form and structure of their sentences.
The amount of monitoring occurs on a continuum. Some language learners over-monitor and some use very little of their learned knowledge and are said to under-monitor. Ideally, speakers strike a balance and monitor at a level where they use their knowledge but are not overly inhibited by it.
Krashen also suggests that there is individual variation among language learners with regard to 'monitor' use. He distinguishes those learners that use the 'monitor' all the time (over-users); those learners who have not learned or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge (under-users); and those learners that use the 'monitor' appropriately (optimal users). An evaluation of the person's psychological profile can help to determine to what group they belong. Usually extroverts are under-users, while introverts and perfectionists are over-users. Lack of self-confidence is frequently related to the over-use of the 'monitor'.  
3. The Natural Order Hypothesis
This hypothesis argues that there is a natural order to the way second language learners acquire their target language. Research suggests that this natural order seems to transcend age, the learner's native language, the target language, and the conditions under which the second language is being learned. The order that the learners follow has four steps:
• They produce single words.
• They string words together based on meaning and not syntax.
• They begin to identify elements that begin and end sentences.
• They begin to identify different elements within sentences and can rearrange them to produce questions.
4. The Input Hypothesis
This hypothesis seeks to explain how second languages are acquired. In its most basic form, the input hypothesis argues that learners progress along the natural order only when they encounter second language input that is one step beyond where they are in the natural order. Therefore, if a learner is at step one from the above list, they will only proceed along the natural order when they encounter input that is at the second step.
This hypothesis relates to acquisition, not to learning. Krashen claims that people acquire language best by understanding input that is a little beyond their present level of competence. Consequently, Krashen believes that 'comprehensible input' (that is, i + 1) should be provided. The 'input' should be relevant and 'not grammatically sequenced'. The 'input' should also be in sufficient quantity. 
5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
This hypothesis describes external factors that can act as a filter that impedes acquisition. These factors include motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. For example, if a learner has very low motivation, very low self-confidence, and a high level of anxiety, the affective filter comes into place and inhibits the learner from acquiring the new language. Students who are motivated, confident, and relaxed about learning the target language have much more success acquiring a second language than those who are trying to learn with the affective filter in place.
B. Critical Review of Stephen D. Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition
Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of five main hypotheses: 
1. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
Krashen, in his theory of second language acquisition (SLA) suggests that adults have two different ways of developing competence in second languages: Acquisition and learning. There are two independent ways of developing ability in second languages. Acquisition is a subconscious process identical in all important ways to the process children utilize in acquiring their first language, and learning, which is a conscious process that results in knowing about the rules of language.
Related to the real situation, the acquisition-learning hypothesis tells us that we should balance class time between acquisition activities and learning exercises. It is important to realize that students or any human being cannot both learn and acquire at the same time because one can focus on only one thing at a time, either on form or on meaning. Therefore, there must be a separation between acquisition and learning activities in FL classes and the relative weight of acquisition classes should be over that of learning classes.
The natural approach instructor does not expect students at the end of a particular course to have acquired a 'specific grammar point'. Instead s/he does expect them to display their comprehension. It is necessary and inevitable, as has been mentioned earlier, to employ two separated classes: Input and grammar classes (i.e., acquisition and learning classes). In input classes, students are given as much comprehensible input as possible. In grammar classes, however, grammar rules are presented deductively or inductively depending on the age of the students (also on whether they are field-independent or field-dependent). The role of grammar classes is to produce 'optimal monitor users' and to aid comprehension indirectly. Therefore, the core of the natural approach is acquisition activities which have a purpose other than conscious grammar exercises such as audiolingual drills and cognitive learning exercises. 
2. The Monitor Hypothesis
As is mentioned, adult second language learners have two means for internalizing the target language. The first is acquisition which is a subconscious and intuitive process of constructing the system of a language. The second means is a conscious learning process in which learners attend to form, figure out rules and are generally aware of their own process. The monitor is an aspect of this second process. It edits and makes alterations or corrections as they are consciously perceived. Krashen believes that fluency in second language performance is due to what we have acquired, not what we have learned: Adults should do as much acquiring as possible for the purpose of achieving communicative fluency. Therefore, the monitor should have only a minor role in the process of gaining communicative competence. Similarly, Krashen suggests three conditions for its use: (1) there must be enough time; (2) the focus must be on form and not on meaning; (3) the learner must know the rule.
There are many difficulties with the use of the monitor, making the monitor rather weak as a language tool.
a) Having time to use the monitor: there is a price that is paid for the use of the monitor- the speaker is then focused on form rather than meaning, resulting in the production and exchange of less information, thus slowing the flow of conversation. Some speakers over-monitor to the point that the conversation is painfully slow and sometimes difficult to listen to.
b) Knowing the rule: this is a difficult condition to meet, because even the best students do not learn every rule that is taught, cannot remember every rule they have learned, and can't always correctly apply the rules they do remember. Furthermore, every rule of a language is not always included in a text nor taught by the teacher .
c) The rules of language make up only a small portion of our language competence: Acquisition does not provide 100% language competence. There is often a small portion of grammar, punctuation, and spelling that even the most proficient native speakers may not acquire. While it is important to learn these aspects of language, since writing is the only form that requires 100% competence, these aspects of language make up only a small portion of our language competence.
Due to these difficulties, Krashen recommends using the monitor at times when it does not interfere with communication, such as while writing.
3. The Natural Order Hypothesis
The Natural Order hypothesis is based on research findings (Dulay & Burt, 1974; Fathman, 1975; Makino, 1980 cited in Krashen, 1987) which suggested that the acquisition of grammatical structures follows a 'natural order' which is predictable. For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. This order seemed to be independent of the learners' age, L1 background, conditions of exposure, and although the agreement between individual acquirers was not always 100% in the studies, there were statistically significant similarities that reinforced the existence of a Natural Order of language acquisition. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.
4. The Input Hypothesis
The Input Hypothesis holds that language learners acquire properties of an L2 in a predictable order, going through a series of common transitional stages in moving towards target language forms. Krashen also suggests that the natural order is unaffected by instruction. (See interface/non-interface positions in sla, monitor model, morpheme acquisition studies.) (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and implications.
In this hypothesis, Krashen attempts to explain how the learner acquires a second language. It is an explanation of how second language acquisition takes place. So, the Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'. According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses along the 'natural order' when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'. Since not all of the learners can be at the same level of linguistic competence at the same time, Krashen suggests that natural communicative input is the key to designing a syllabus, ensuring in this way that each learner will receive some 'i + 1' input that is appropriate for his/her current stage of linguistic competence. 
Evidence for the Input Hypothesis (chiefly Krashen 1985a)
• people speak to children acquiring their first language in special ways
• people speak to L2 learners in special ways
• L2 learners often go through an initial Silent Period
• the comparative success of younger and older learners reflects provision of comprehensible input
• the more comprehensible input the greater the L2 proficiency
• lack of comprehensible input delays language acquisition
• teaching methods work according to the extent that they use comprehensible input
• immersion teaching is successful because it provides comprehensible input
• bilingual programs succeed to the extent they provide comprehensible input.
Language acquisition is caused by learners understanding input which is slightly beyond their current stage of knowledge, by means of context and other extra-linguistic cues, and that, while we should not try to provide input which specifically aims at the next stage, ‘comprehensible’ input is particularly beneficial. In this article I will suggest that there are a number of problems with Krashen's input hypothesis, as currently formulated. Firstly, by concentrating on meaning and context, he misses the fact that certain aspects of grammar development in the learner are largely internally driven, and independent of context or meaning. Secondly, he overestimates the role and benefits of simplified input. Thirdly, Krashen feels that we can never really be sure what input is relevant to what stage, but this is due to the imprecision of his formulation: once one incorporates a detailed theory of language, it is possible to come up with a theory to identify precisely what aspects of input trigger development. Finally, there are circumstances where the secondlanguage (L2) input will not be able to show the learner how to retreat from certain non-target forms: the input hypothesis is geared to handling additions to intermediate grammars, rather than losses. I will argue that second-language acquisition theory should indeed include an input hypothesis, and, consequently, that we should try and tighten up Krashen's formulation to deal with these objections, rather than abandoning it. 
5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
Finally, the fifth hypothesis, the Affective Filter hypothesis, embodies Krashen's view that a number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition. These variables include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation, low self-esteem, and debilitating anxiety can combine to raise the affective filter and form a mental block that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition. In other words, when the filter is 'up' it impedes language acquisition. On the other hand, positive affect is necessary, but not sufficient on its own, for acquisition to take place.
The learner's emotional state, according to Krashen, is just like an adaptable filter which freely passes or hinders input necessary to acquisition. In other words, input must be achieved in low-anxiety contexts since acquirers with a low affective filter receive more input and interact with confidence. The filter is 'affective' because there are some factors which regulate its strength. These factors are self-confidence, motivation and anxiety state.
Conclusion of Krashen's Comprehension Hypothesis Model of L2 learning  
1. The Natural Order Hypothesis: we acquire the rules of language in a predictable order
2. The Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis: adults have two distinctive ways of developing competences in second languages acquisition. Acquiring, that is by using language for real communication, and learning , "knowing about" language' (Krashen & Terrell 1983)
3. The Monitor Hypothesis: conscious learning can only be used as a Monitor or an editor' (Krashen & Terrell 1983)
4. The Input Hypothesis: humans acquire language in only one way - by understanding messages or by receiving "comprehensible input"
5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis: a mental block, caused by affective factors that prevents input from reaching the language acquisition device

Krashen. D. 1987. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd.
______________. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd.
Ellis. R. 1985. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press.
Klein. W. 1986. Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge University Press.


1. Pengertian Filsafat dan Ilmu Pengetahuan
FilsafatdanIlmuadalahduakata yang saling berkaitan baik secara substansialmaupunhistoris. Kelahiransuatuilmutidak dapat dipisahkandariperanan filsafat, sebaliknyaperkembanganilmu memperkuatkeberadaan filsafat. Walaupuntelahbertahun-tahunmempelajariilmu, pengetahuanilmiahtidakdigunakansebagaiacuandalamkehidupan sehari-hari. Ilmudianggapsebagaihafalansaja,bukansebagai pengetahuan yang mendeskripsikan, menjelaskan, memprediksikangejalaalamuntukkesejahteraandankenyamananhidup. Kiniilmutelahtercerabutdarinilailuhurilmu, yaituuntukmenyejahterakanumatmanusia. Bahkantidakmustahilterjadi, ilmudanteknologimenjadibencanabagikehidupanmanusia,sepertipemanasanglobal dan dehumanisasi. 
Ilmudanteknologitelahkehilangan rohnya yang fundamental, karenailmutelahmengurangibahkanmenghilangkanperanmanusia, danbahkantanpadisadarimanusiatelahmenjadibudakilmudanteknologi.Olehkarenaitu, filsafatilmumencobamengembalikanrohdannilailuhurdariilmu,agar ilmutidakmenjadibumerangbagikehidupanmanusia.Filsafatilmuakanmempertegasbahwailmudanteknologiadalahinstrumendalammencapaikesejahteraanbukantujuan. Filsafatilmudiberikansebagaipengetahuanbagiorangyang inginmendalamihakikatilmudankaitannyadenganpengetahuan lainnya. Dalammasyarakatreligius, ilmudipandangsebagaibagianyangtidakterpisahkandari nilai nilaikeTuhanan, karenasumberilmuyang hakikiadalahTuhan.ManusiadiberidayafikirolehTuhan, dandengandayafikirinilahmanusiamenemukanteori-teoriilmiahdanteknologi.
Pengaruhagama yang kakudandogmatiskadangkalamenghambatperkembanganilmu. Olehkarenanyadiperlukankecerdasandankejeliandalammemahamikebenaranilmiahdengansistemnilaidalamagama, agarkeduanyatidaksalingbertentangan.Dalamfilsafatilmu, ilmuakandijelaskansecarafilosofisdanakademissehinggailmudanteknologitidaktercerabutdarinilaiagama, kemanusiaan dan lingkungan. Dengandemikianfilsafatilmuakanmemberikannilaidanorientasiyangjelasbagisetiapilmu.
I. 1. Pengertian Filsafat
FilsafatberasaldaribahasaYunani, philosophia atauphilosophos. Philos atau philein berartitemanataucinta, dan shopia atau shopos berarti kebijaksanaan,pengetahuan,danhikmah.Filsafatberartijuga ‘mater scientiarum’ yang artinyaindukdarisegalailmu pengetahuan. KatafilsafatdalambahasaIndonesia memilikipadanankatafalsafah (Arab), philosophie (Prancis, BelandadanJerman), serta philosophy (Inggris). Dengandemikianfilsafatberartimencintaihal-halyangbersifatbijaksana(menjadikatasifat) bisaberartitemankebijaksanaan(menjadi katabenda)atauindukdarisegala ilmu pengetahuan.
Phytagoras (572 -497 SM) ditahbiskansebagaiorangpertamayang memakaikata philosopiayang berartipecintakebijaksanaan(lover ofwisdom) bukan kebijaksanaan itusendiri.Plato (427-347 SM)mengartikannyasebagaiilmupengetahuanyang berminatmencapaikebenaranyanghakikilewatdialektika dan Aristoteles (382 –322 SM) mendefinisikanfilsafatsebagaipengetahuantentangkebenaran.Al-Farabi (870 –950) mengartikanfilsafatsebagaiilmupengetahuantentang alam maujud danhakekatalamyang sebenarnya.Descartes (1590 –1650) mendefinisikanfilsafatsebagaikumpulanilmupengetahuantentang Tuhan, alamdan manusia. Immanuel Kant (1724 –1804)mendefinisikanfilsafatsebagaiilmupengetahuanyang menjadipokokdanpangkaldarisegalapengetahuan. 
MenurutKant adaempathalyang dikajidalamfilsafatyaitu: apayangdapatmanusiaketahui? (metafisika), apayangseharusnyadiketahuimanusia?(etika),sampaidimanaharapanmanusia? ( agama) danapakahmanusiaitu?(antropologi). Merriam-Webster dalamkamusnya mendefinisikan; filsafatadalah ‘literally the love of wisdom, in the actual usage, thescience that investigates the most general facts andprinsciplesofreality and human nature and conduct:logic, ethics, aesthetics and the theory ofknowledge’.Kesimpulannya semuadefinisifilsafatdiatastidakpernahdapatmenampilkanpengertianyang sempurnakarenasetiaporangselaluberbedacaradangayadalammendefinisikansuatumasalah. Definisidanpengertiantidakakanmenyesatkanselamakitamemandangnyasebagaicarapengenalanawalatausementarauntukmencapaikesempurnaanlebihlanjut.
Dengandemikianfilsafatmerupakanilmuyangmempelajaridengansungguh-sungguhhakekatkebenaransegalasesuatu. Denganbantuanfilsafat,manusiaberusahamenangkapmakna, hakekat, hikmahdarisetiappemikran,realitasdankejadian.Filsafatmengantarkanmanusiauntuklebihjernih,mendasardanbijaksanadalamberfikir, bersikap,berkata, berbuatdanmengambilkesimpulan.
I. 2. Pendekatan Filsafat dalam Memperoleh Ilmu
PadazamanPlato sampaipadamasaAl-Kindi, batasantarafilsafatdanilmupengetahuanbolehdikatakantidakada. Seorangfilosof(ahlifilsafat) pastimenguasaisemuailmupengetahuan. Perkembangandayaberfikirmanusiayangmengembangkanfilsafatpadatingkatpraktisdikalahkanolehperkembanganilmuyang didukungolehteknologi.Wilayahkajianfilsafatmenjadilebihsempitdibandingkandenganwilayahkajianilmu. Sehinggaadaanggapanfilsafattidakdibutuhkanlagi. Filsafatkurangmembumisedangkanilmulebihbermanfaatdanlebihpraktis. 
Padahalfilsafatmenghendakipengetahuanyangkomprehensifyangluas, umum, danuniversal danhalinitidakdapatdiperolehdalamilmu.Sehinggafilsafatdapatditempatkanpadaposisidimanapemikiranmanusiatidakmungkindapatdijangkauolehilmu.Ilmubersifat pasteriori (kesimpulanditariksetelahmelakukanpengujiansecaraberulang), sedangkanfilsafatbersifat priori (kesimpulanditariktanpapengujiantetapipemikirandanperenungan).Keduanya sama samamenggunakanaktivitasberfikir,walaupuncaraberfikirnyaberbeda. Keduanyajugasama-samamencarikebenaran. Kebenaranfilsafattidakdapatdibuktikanolehfilsafatsendiritetapihanyadapatdibuktikan olehteorikeilmuanmelaluiobservasiataupuneksperimenuntukmendapatkanjustifikasi.Filsafatdapatmerangsanglahirnyakeinginandaritemuanfilosofismelaluiberbagaiobservasidaneksperimenyang melahirkanilmu-ilmu.Hasilkerjafilosofisdapatmenjadipembukabagilahirnyasuatuilmu, olehkarenaitufilsafatdisebutjugasebagaiindukilmu(motherof science). Untukkepentinganperkembanganilmu, lahirdisiplinfilsafatyangmengkajiilmupengetahuanyang dikenalsebagai filsafatilmu pengetahuan.
1.3. Ciri Ciri Berfikir Filsafat
Berfilsafatdapatdiartikansebagaiberfikir. Ciriberfikirfilsafatadalah: 
a. Radikal: berfikirradikalartinyaberfikirsampaikeakarpermasalahannya.
b. Sistematik, berfikiryang logis, sesuaiaturan, langkahdemilangkah, berurutan,penuhkesadaran, danpenuhtanggungjawab.
c. Universal, berfikirsecaramenyeluruhtidakterbataspadabagiantertentutetapimencakupseleuruhaspek.
d. Spekulatif, berfikirspekulatifterhadapkebenaranyang perlupengujianuntukmemberikanbuktikebenaranyang difikirkannya.
I. 4. Pengetahuandan Kebenaran
DalamEncyclopedia of Philosophy,pengetahuandidefinisikansebagaikepercayaanyang benar(knowledge is justified true belief).MenurutSidiGazalba,pengetahuanadalahapayang diketahuiatauhasilpekerjaanmengetahui.Mengetahuiituhasilkenal, sadar, insaf,mengerti, benardanpandai.Pengetahuanituharusbenar,kalautidakbenarmakabukanpengetahuantetapikekeliruanataukontradiksi.Pengetahuanmerupakanhasilsuatuprosesataupengalamanyang sadar.Pengetahuan(knowledge)merupakanterminologigenerikyang mencakupseluruhhalyang diketahuimanusia.Dengandemikianpengetahuanadalahkemampuanmanusiasepertiperasaan, pikiran,pengalaman, pengamatan, danintuisiyang mampumenangkapalamdankehidupannyaserta mengabstraksikannyauntukmencapaisuatutujuan.Tujuanmanusiamempunyaipengetahuanadalah:
a. Memenuhi kebutuhan untuk kelangsungan hidup
b. Mengembangkan arti kehidupan
c. Mempertahankan kehidupan dan kemanusiaan itu sendiri.
d. Mencapai tujuan hidup.
Binatangpunmempunyaipengetahuan, tetapihanyasekedaratauterbatasuntukmelangsungkanhidup(tujuansurvival).
I. 5. Jenis Pengetahuan
Pengetahuan biasa(common sense) yang digunakanterutamauntukkehidupansehari-hari, tanpamengetahuiselukbelukyangsedalam-dalamnyadanseluas-luasnya.
Pengetahuan ilmiahatauIlmu, adalahpengetahuanyang diperolehdengancarakhusus, bukanhanyauntukdigunakansajatetapiinginmengetahuilebihdalamdanluas untuk mengetahuikebenarannya, tetapimasihberkisarpadapengalaman.
Pengetahuan filsafat, adalah pengetahuanyang tidakmengenalbatas, sehinggayang dicariadalahsebab-sebabyang paling dalamdanhakikisampaidiluardandiataspengalamanbiasa.
Pengetahuan agama, suatupengetahuanyang hanyadiperolehdariTuhanlewatparaNabidanRosul-Nya. Pengetahuaninibersifatmutlakdanwajibdiyakiniolehparapemelukagama.
I. 6. Gejala Mengetahui
Padasuatusaat, manusiainginmengetahuisesuatutentangdirinya, duniasekitarnya, oranglain, yang baikdanyang buruk, yang indahdanjelek, danmacam-macamlagi. Jikainginmengetahuisesuatu, tentuadasuatudorongandaridalamdirimanusiayang mengajukanpertanyaanyang perlujawabanyangmemuaskankeingintahuannya. Doronganitudisebutrasainginmengetahui. Sesuatuyangdiketahuimanusiadisebutpengetahuan. Pengetahuanyangmemuaskanmanusiaadalahpengetahuanyang benar. Pengetahuan yangtidakbenaradalahkekeliruan.Keliruseringkalilebihjelekdaripadatidaktahu karena sering digunakan untuk melakukan tindakan/perbuatankeliruan, kesalahandanmalapetaka.
HasilgejalamengetahuiadalahmanusiamengetahuisecarasadarbahwadiatelahmengetahuiKelompok Manusia
- Manusiatahu, bahwaiatahu 
- Manusia tahu, bahwa ia tidak tahu 
- Manusia tidak tahu, bahwa ia tahu
- Manusiatidaktahu, bahwaiatidaktahu.
Dengandemikianpengetahuanyangdiperolehmanusiaitusebenarnyabaruada,kalaumanusia itu sudahmengambilkesimpulandariberbagaipengalamannyabahwaobjekyang ingindiketahuinyaitusudahbenar-benardiketahui.
I. 7. Pengetahuan Ilmiah 
PengetahuanIlmiahatauIlmu(Science) padadasarnyamerupakanusahauntukmengorganisasikandanmensistematisasikancommon sense, suatupengetahuansehari-hariyang dilanjutkandengansuatupemikirancermatdanseksamadenganmenggunakanberbagaimetode.
Ilmumerupakansuatumetodeberfikirsecaraobjektifyang bertujuanuntukmenggambarkandanmemberimaknaterhadapgejaladanfaktamelaluiobservasi,eksperimendanklasifikasi. Ilmuharusbersifatobjektif, karenadimulaidarifakta,menyampingkansifatkedirian, mengutamakanpemikiranlogikdannetral.
I. 8. Berbagai Pengertian Ilmu
DalamEncyclopedia Americana, ilmuadalahpengetahuan yangbersifatpositifdansistematis.Paul Freedman dalamThe Principles of ScientificResearchmendefinisikanilmusebagai: bentukaktifitasmanusiayang denganmelakukannyaumatmanusiamemperolehsuatupengetahuandansenantiasalebihlengkapdancermattentangalamdimasalampau,sekarang dan kemudianhari, sertasuatukemampuanyangmeningkatuntukmenyesuaikandirinyadanmengubahlingkungannyasertamengubahsifat-sifatnyasendiri.
II. Hakekat Pengetahuan
Adaduateoriyang digunakanuntukmengetahuihakekatPengetahuan:
1. Realisme, teoriinimempunyaipandanganrealististerhadapalam.Pengetahuanadalahgambaranyangsebenarnyadariapayang adadalamalamnyata.
2. Idealisme, teoriinimenerangkanbahwapengetahuanadalah proses prosesmental/psikologisyang bersifatsubjektif. Pengetahuanmerupakangambaransubjektif tentangsesuatuyang adadalamalammenurutpendapatataupenglihatanorangyang mengalamidanmengetahuinya. Premispokokadalahjiwayangmempunyaikedudukanutamadalamalamsemesta.Sebenarnyarealismedanidealismemempunyaikelemahan-kelemahantertentu. 
II. 1. Sumber Pengetahuan
Adabeberapapendapattentang sumberpengetahuanantaralain:
1. Empirisme, menurutaliraninimanusiamemperolehpengetahuanmelaluipengalaman(empereikos= pengalaman). Dalamhaliniharusada3 hal, yaituyangmengetahui(subjek), yang diketahui(objek) dancaramengetahui(pengalaman).Tokohyang terkenal: John Locke (1632–1704), George Barkeley(1685 -1753)danDavid Hume.
2. Rasionalisme, aliraninimenyatakanbahwaakal(reason) merupakandasarkepastiandankebenaranpengetahuan, walaupunbelumdidukungolehfaktaempiris.TokohnyaadalahRene Descartes (1596 –1650,Baruch Spinoza (1632 –1677)danGottriedLeibniz (1646 –1716).
3. Intuisi. Denganintuisi, manusiamemperolehpengetahuansecaratiba-tibatanpamelaluiprosespernalarantertentu. Henry Bergsonmenganggapintuisimerupakanhasildarievolusipemikiranyangtertinggi, tetapibersifatpersonal.
4. Wahyuadalahpengetahuanyang bersumberdariTuhanmelaluihambanyayangterpilihuntukmenyampaikannya(NabidanRosul).Melaluiwahyuatauagama, manusiadiajarkantentangsejumlahpengetahuanbaikyang terjangkauataupuntidakterjangkauolehmanusia.
II. 2. Ukuran Kebenaran
Berfikirmerupakansuatuaktifitasmanusiauntukmenemukankebenaran. Apayangdisebutbenarolehseseorangbelumtentubenarbagioranglain.Olehkarenaitudiperlukansuatuukuranataukriteriakebenaran.Adatigajeniskebenaranyaitu:kebenaranepistemologi(berkaitandenganpengetahuan), kebenaranontologis(berkaitandengan sesuatuyang adaataudiadakan),dankebenaransemantis(berkaitandenganbahasadantuturkata). Ada4 teorikebenaran:yaituteoriKorespondensi, TeoriKoherensi, TeoriPragmatisme, danTeoriKebenaranIllahiahatauagama.
Ketigateoripertamamempunyaiperbedaanparadigma. Teorikoherensimendasarkandiripadakebenaranrasio, teorikorespondensipadakebenaranfaktual,danteorifragmatismefungsionalpadafungsidankegunaankebenaranitusendiri.Tetapiketiganyamemilikipersamaan. Yaitupertama, seluruhteorimelibatkanlogika, baiklogikaformal maupunmaterial (deduktifdaninduktif), keduamelibatkanbahasauntukmengujikebenaranitu, danketigamenggunakanpengalamanuntukmengetahuikebenaranitu.
II. 3. Ilmu Sebagai Objek Kajian Filsafat 
1. Pada dasarnya setiap ilmu memiliki 2 macam obyek, yaitu obyek materi dan obyek formal. Obyek materi filsafat adalah segalam yang ada. Obyek formalnya filsafat adalah sudut pandang yang menyeluruh, radikal, dan rasional tentang segala yang ada.
2. Filsafat sebagai induk ilmu. Tetapi juga mengalami spesialisasi. Perkembangan ilmu yang sangat cepat tidak saja membuat ilmu semakin jauh dari induknya tetapi juga memunculkan arogansi ilmu dengan lainnya.
3. Ilmu sebagai obyek kajian filsafat sepatutnya mengikuti alur filsafat. 
2. Fungsi Filsafat dan Ilmu
Filsafat merupakan suatu usaha memahami alam semesta, makna berikut nilainya (Harold H. Titus, 1959, Living Issues in Philosophy).Apabila tujuan ilmu adalah kontrol, maka tujuan filsafat adalah pengertian dan kebijaksanaan (understanding and wisdom). Dr. Oemar A. Hoesin mengatakan: Ilmu memberi kita pengetahuan, dan filsafat memberikan hikmah. Filsafat memberikan kepuasan kepada keinginan manusia akan pengetahuan yang tersusun dengan tertib, akan kebenaran. S. Takdir Alisyahbana menulis dalam bukunya: filsafat itu dapat memberikan ketenangan pikiran dan kemantapan hati, sekalipun menghadapi maut. 
Dalam tujuan tunggalnya, yaitu menemukan kebenaran dalam arti yang sedalam-dalamnya dan seluas-luasnya, terletak kebesaran kemuliaan filsafat di antara kerja manusia yang lain. Bagi manusia, berfilsafat itu berarti mengatur hidupnya seinsaf-insafnya, senetral-netralnya dengan perasaan tanggung jawab, yakni tanggung jawab terhadap dasar hidup yang sedalam-dalamnya, baik Tuhan, alam, atau pun kebenaran. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan dalam bukunya, History of Philosophy, menyebutkan: Tugas filsafat bukanlah sekadar mencerminkan semangat masa ketika kita hidup, melainkan membimbingnya maju. Fungsi filsafat adalah kreatif, menetapkan nilai, menetapkan tujuan, menentukan arah dan menuntun pada jalan baru.Filsafat hendaknya mengilhamkan keyakinan kepada kita untuk menopang dunia baru, mencetak manusia-manusia yang menjadikan penggolongan-penggolongan berdasarkan SARA mengabdi kepada cita mulia kemanusiaan.
Filsafat tidak ada artinya sama sekali apabila tidak universal, baik dalam ruang lingkupnya maupun dalam semangatnya. Studi filsafat harus membantu orang-orang untuk membangun keyakinan keagamaan atas dasar yang matang secara intelektual.Filsafat dapat mendukung kepercayaan keagamaan seseorang, asal kepercayaan tersebut tidak bergantung pada konsepsi prailmiah yang usang, yang sempit dan yang dogmatis.Menurut beberapa filsuf, agama menyangkut harmoni, pengaturan, ikatan, pengabdian, perdamaian, kejujuran, pembebasan yang mengacu pada Tuhan.
Apabila Soemadi Soerjabrata berpendapat bahwa mempelajari filsafat adalah untuk mempertajamkan pikiran, maka H. De Vos berpendapat bahwa filsafat tidak hanya cukup diketahui, tetapi harus dipraktekkan dalam kehidupan sehari-sehari. Orang mengharapkan bahwa filsafat akan memberikan kepadanya dasar-dasar pengetahuan, yang dibutuhkan untuk hidup secara baik. Filsafat harus mengajar manusia, bagaimana ia harus hidup secara baik. Filsafat harus mengajar manusia, bagaimana ia harus hidup agar dapat menjadi manusia yang baik dan bahagia. 
Menurut Agraha Suhandi (1989), filsafat berfungsi selain sebagai alat mencari kebenaran dari segala fenomena yang ada, filsafat dapat membantu manusia mempertahankan, menunjang dan melawan atau berdiri netral terhadap pandangan filsafat lainnya. Filsafat dapat pula memberikan pengertian tentang cara hidup, pandangan hidup dan pandangan dunia. Filsafat pun mampu memberikan ajaran tentang moral dan etika yang berguna dalam kehidupan dan menjadi sumber inspirasi dan pedoman untuk kehidupan dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan itu sendiri, seperti ekonomi, politik, hukum dan sebagainya
Frank (dalam Soeparmo, 1984), dengan mengambil sebuah rantai sebagai perbandingan, menjelaskan bahwa fungsi filsafat dalam ilmu pengetahuan adalah mengembangkan pengertian tentang strategi dan taktik ilmu pengetahuan. Rantai tersebut, sebelum tahun 1600, menghubungkan filsafat disatu pangkal dan ilmu pengetahuan di ujung lain secara berkesinambungan. Sesudah tahun 1600, rantai itu putus.Ilmu pengetahuan memisahkan diri dari filsafat.Ilmu pengetahuan menempuh jalan praktis dalam menurunkan hukum-hukumnya. Menurut Frank, fungsi filsafat dalam ilmu pengetahuan adalah menjembatani putusnya rantai tersebut dan menunjukkan bagaimana seseorang beranjak dari pandangan common sense (pra-pengetahuan) ke prinsip-prinsip umum ilmu pengetahuan. Menurut Ismaun, filsafat dapat memberikan landasan filosofik dalam memahami berbagi konsep dan teori sesuatu disiplin ilmu dan membekali kemampuan untuk membangun teori ilmiah.
Dari uraian dan beberapa pendapat di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa tujuan utama filsafat adalah mencari hakikat kebenaran sesuatu, baik dalam logika (kebenaran berpikir), etika (berperilaku), maupun metafisik (hakikat keaslian) dan apabila ditarik benang merah maka filsafat dalam ilmu pengetahuan bertanggung jawab untuk membentuk kesatuan pandangan dunia yang di dalamnya terdapat ilmu pengetahuan. Filsafat dan kemanusiaan mempunyai hubungan erat dan memiliki beberapa fungsi, antara lain:
• Alat untuk menelusuri kebenaran segala hal-hal yang dapat disaksikan dengan pancaindra dan dapat diterangkan serta dinilai secara ilmiah.
• Memberikan pengertian tentang cara hidup dan pandangan hidup. 
• Panduan tentang ajaran moral dan etika.
• Sumber ilham dan panduan untuk menjalani berbagai aspek kehidupan. 
• Sarana untuk mempertahankan, mendukung, menyerang atau juga tidak memihak terhadap pandangan filsafat lainnya.
3. Perbedaan antara Filsafat dan Ilmu Pengetahuan
Menurut Burhanuddin Salam (2008:78), beberapa perbedaan antara filsafat dan ilmu pengetahuan yaitu:
a. Objek material (lapangan) filsafat itu bersifat universal (umum) yaitu segala sesuatu yang ada ( realita), sedangkan obyek material (lapangan) ilmu pengetahuan itu bersifat khusus dalam arti khusus masing-masing bidang pengolahannya saja.
Karena sifat khusus dari ilmu pengetahuan itu, maka ilmu pengetahuan itu adalah suatu spesifikasi.Dari spesifikasi itu orang masih terus- menerus mengadakan diferensiasi sampai spesialisasi.Oleh Karen itu, ilmu pengetahuan biasanya disebut ilmu spesial, ilmu pengetahuan mengejar obyektivitas (kebenaran) dan menyatakan bahwa suatu itu benar atau tidak benar, tetapi ilmu pengetahuan tidak dapat memberi jawaban apakah kebenaran itu sendiri.Di lain pihak, filsafat itu bersifat universal, maka pendekatan/ approach filsafat bermuara kepada reflection/ contemplation (perenungan-pertimbangan).
b. Obyek formal (sudut pandangan) filsafat itu bersifat non –fragmentaris, karena mencari pengertian dari segala sesuatu yang ada itu secara luas, mendalam, dan mengasas.Sedangkan ilmu pengetahuan bersifat fragmentaris dan abstrak dengan peninjauan secara ekstensif dan intensif.Dengan ekstensif berarti ilmu pengetahuan itu dalam meninjau objek materialnya hanyalah sebagai daripada realita. Dengan intensif berarti selalu meninjau objek materialnya dari sudut pandangan tertentu yang menuju kepada spesialisasi atau pengkhususan masing-masing bidang keilmuan itu.
Disamping itu obyek formal (sudut pandangan) ilmu pengetahuan itu bersifat teknik, yang berarti bahwa cara ide-ide manusia itu mengadakan penyatuan diri dengan realita. Misalnya manusia itu berpotensi haus, ia minum. Karena masalahnya mengkhusus dan mengteknis, maka aspirasi ilmu pengetahuan itu adalah ketepatan.Ilmu pengetahuan dijalankan manusia dengan mengteknis.Tujuan untuk menyempurnakan kodratnya, suapaya lebih sempurna mengabdi kepada masyarakat.
c. Filsafat dilaksanakan dalam suatu pengetahuan yang mementingkan kontrol atau pengawasan. Misalnya untuk mengetahui sesuatu dalam ilmu pengetahuan harus diadakan riset. Oleh Karena itu, nilai ilmu pengetahuan timbul dari kegunaannya, sedangkan keguanaan filsafat timbul dari nilainya.
d. Filsafat membuat pertanyaan lebih jauh dan lebih mendalam berdasarkan kepada explicitatis dari apa yang terkandung dalam pengalaman sehari-hari.
e. Seorang tokoh Eksistensialisme Gabriel Marcell mengemukakan istilah “Problema dan misteri”. Pada prinsipnya filsafat itu membawa kepada suatu misteri yang tidak dapat dipecahkan sekaligus. Di lain pihak, suatu problema menggambarkan dirinya sendiri dalam prinsip sebagai suatu yang dapat dipecahkan,apabila seorang dapat mengatur data-data yang cukup dan mengetahui metode yang benar.Pemecahan suatu problema itu dapat membawa kepada persoalan-persoalan baru, minimal sebagian daripada problema itu dapat dipisahkan.
f. Filsafat memberikan penjelasan yang terakhir,yang mutlak ,mendalam, mengasas (first causes). Sedangkan ilmu pengetahuan menunjukkan sebab-akibat yang tidak begitu mendalam, yang lebih dekat, yang sekunder (secondary cause). Jadi, seorang filosof tidak puas dengan “secondary cause” dengan “proximate explanation”, melainkan menerobos sampai ke intisari, sampai dasar-dasar yang paling dasar, yang memberikan penjelasan yang terakhir, “ultimate explanation” dan “first causes”.
g. Ilmu lebih menekankan pada deskripsi hukum-hukum fenomenal dan hubungan kausal. Filsafat tertarik dengan hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan pertanyaan “why” dan “how”.
h. Ilmu meneliti alam, mengontrol proses alam. Sedangkan tugas filsafat mengadakan kritik, menilai, dan mengkoordinasikan tujuan.
i. Ilmu menghilangkan faktor-faktor yang subyektif, sedangkan filsafat tertarik kepada personalitas, nilai-nilai, dan semua pengalaman.
j. Filsafat mempelajari seluruh realitas. Sedangkan ilmu mempelajari satu realitas atau satu bidang tertentu.
Sedangkan menurut Henderson (dalam Burhanuddin Salam, 2008:74), ada beberapa perbedaan antara ilmu dan filsafat:
No. Ilmu (science) Filsafat
1 Anak filsafat Induk ilmu
2 Analitis; memeriksa semua gejala melalui unsur terkecilnya untuk memperoleh gambaran senyatanya menurut bagiannya. Sinoptis; memandang dunia dan alam semesta sebagai keseluruhan untuk dapat menerangkannya, menafsirkannya, dan memahaminya secara keseluruhan.
3 Menekankan fakta-fakta untuk melukiskan obyeknya; netral dan mengabstrakkan faktor keinginan dan penilaian manusia. Bukan saja menekankan keadaan sebenarnya dari obyek, melainkan juga bagaimana seharusnya obyek itu.
4 Memulai sesuatu dengan memakai asumsi-asumsi. Memeriksa dan meragukan segala asumsi-asumsi.
5 Mengunakan metode eksperimen yang terkontrol sebagai cara kerja dan sifat terpenting; menguji sesuatu dengan menggunakan penginderaan. Menggunakan semua penemuan ilmu pengetahuan; menguji sesuatu berdasarkan pengalaman dengan memakai pikiran
 Para ilmuwan berusaha menjelaskan fenomena alam yang bersifat empirik. Misalnya, biologi menjelaskan gerak binatang dan manusia, atau fisika menjelaskan gerak benda-benda dan mesin. Filsuf bukan tidak menjelaskan alam yang empirik tetapi filsuf mencari penjelasan di balik suatu fenomena atau mencari noumena.

 Ilmu Pengetahuan bekerja pada tataran fenomena atau taraf empirik, sehingga penjelasan ilmu bersifat deskriptif-objektif. Filsafat bekerja pada tataran noumena, sehingga penjelasannya bersifat reflektif-kritis. Reflektif karena filsafat memasuki hakikat, kritis, karena filsafat berbeda dari ilmu pengetahuan yakni menilai.
8 Penjelasan ilmiah mempunyai dua tujuan spesifik, yakni teoritis dan praktis. Tujuan teoritis menjelaskan suatu fenomena.Tujuan praktis adalah memperkirakan dan mengendalikan suatu fenomena agar manusia bisa hidup nyaman. Perhatian utama para filsuf adalah memahami suatu masalah dan menemukan jawabannya, entah apapun manfaat praktisnya. Para filsuf setuju bahwa upaya mencari pengetahuan merupakan tujuan yang penting. Jadi, sasaran filsafat adalah menyelidiki suatu permasalahan filsafat demi permasalahan itu sendiri.
10 Ilmu pengetahuan lebih menekankan pada deskripsi hukum-hukum fenomenal dan hubungan kausal Filsafat lebih tertarik pada hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan pertanyaan why and how
 Menurut sudut pandang Drs. Agraha Suhandi (1992), perbedaan utama antara ilmu dan filsapat dapat di lihat dalam bagan di bawah ini.
Ilmu Filsafat
• Segi-segi yang dipelajari dibatasi agar dihasilkan rumusan-rumusan yang pasti 

• Obyek penelitian yang terbatas
• Tidak menilai obyek dari suatu sistem nilai tertentu.
• Bertugas memberikan jawaban • Mencoba merumuskan pertanyaan atas jawaban. Mencari prinsip-prinsip umum, tidak membatasi segi pandangannya bahkan cenderung memandang segala sesuatu secara umum dan keseluruhan
• Keseluruhan yang ada
• Menilai obyek renungan dengan suatu makna, misalkan , religi, kesusilaan, keadilan dsb.
• Bertugas mengintegrasikan ilmu-ilmu
4. Hubungan antara Filsafat dengan Ilmu Pengetahuan
Dalam sejarah filsafat Yunani, filsafat mencakup seluruh bidang ilmu pengetahuan. Lambat laun banyak ilmu-ilmu khusus yang melepaskan diri dari filsafat.Meskipun demikian, filsafat dan ilmu pengetahuan masih memiliki hubungan dekat. Sebab baik filsafat maupun ilmu pengetahuan sama-sama pengetahuan yang metodis, sistematis, koheren dan mempunyai obyek material dan formal.
Dalam hubngannya, filsafat dan ilmu merupakan kegiatan manusia.Kegiatan tersebut dapat diartikan dalam prosesnya dan juga hasilnya.Dilihat dari hasilnhya, filsafat dan ilmu merupakan hasil dari berpikir manusia secara sadar, sedangkan dilihat dari segi prosesnya, filsafat dan ilmu menunjukkan satu kegiatan yang berusaha untuk memecahkan masalah-masalah yang ada dalam kehidupan manusia (untuk memperoleh kebenaran dan pengetahuan), dengan menggunakan metode-metode atau prosedur-prosedur tertentu secara sistematis dan kritis.
Jika kita berbicara tentang hubungan antara filsafat dan limu, maka kita akan berbicara tentang perbedaan dan persamaanya. Perbedaan antara kedua kegiatan manusia tersebut bukan untuk dipertentangkan, melainkan untuk saling mengisi dan melengkapi, karena pada hakekatnya, perbedaan itu terjadi disebabkan karena cara pendekatan yang berbeda.Maka dalam hal ini, perlu kita bandingkan perbedaan-perbedaan maupun titik temu antara keduanya.
Selain beberapa perbedaan yang telah dikemukakan pada penjelasan sebelumnya, ada beberapa titik temu antara filsafat dan ilmu itu sendiri, seperti:
• Keduanya menggunakan metode reflective thinking di dalam menghadapi fakta-fakta dunia dan hidup ini.
• Keduanya menunjukkan sikap kritis dan terbuka, dan memberikan perhatian yang tidak berat sebelah terhadap kebenaran.
• Keduanya tertarik terhadap pengetahuan yang terorganisir dan sistematis.
• Ilmu memberikan sejumlah bahan-bahan deskriptif dan faktual serta esensial bagi pemikiran filsafat.
• Ilmu mengkoreksi filsafat dengan jalan menghilangkan sejumlah ide-ide yang bertentangan dengan pengetahuan yang ilmiah.
• Filsafat merangkum pengetahuan yang terpotong-potong, yang menjadikan bermaca-macam ilmu yang berbeda-beda, dan menyusun bahan-bahan tersebut kedalam suatu pandangan tentang hidup dan dunia yang lebih menyeluruh dan terpadu.
Ditinjau dari segi historis, hubungan antara filsafat dan ilmu pengetahuan mengalami perkembangan yang sangat menyolok.Pada permulaan sejarah filsafat di Yunani, “philosophia” meliputi hampir seluruh pemikiran teoritis. Tetapi dalam perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan di kemudian hari, ternyata juga kita lihat adanya kecenderungan yang lain. Filsafat Yunani Kuno yang tadinya merupakan suatu kesatuan kemudian menjadi terpecah-pecah (Bertens, 1987, Nuchelmans, 1982).
Lebih lanjut Nuchelmans (1982), mengemukakan bahwa dengan munculnya ilmu pengetahuan alam pada abad ke 17, maka mulailah terjadi perpisahan antara filsafat dan ilmu pengetahuan.Dengan demikian dapatlah dikemukakan bahwa sebelum abad ke 17 tersebut ilmu pengetahuan adalah identik dengan filsafat.Pendapat tersebut sejalan dengan pemikiran Van Peursen (1985), yang mengemukakan bahwa dahulu ilmu merupakan bagian dari filsafat, sehingga definisi tentang ilmu bergantung pada sistem filsafat yang dianut.
Dalam perkembangan lebih lanjut menurut Koento Wibisono (1999), filsafat itu sendiri telah mengantarkan adanya suatu konfigurasi dengan menunjukkan bagaimana “pohon ilmu pengetahuan” telah tumbuh mekar-bercabang secara subur. Masing-masing cabang melepaskan diri dari batang filsafatnya, berkembang mandiri dan masing-masing mengikuti metodologinya sendiri-sendiri.
Dengan demikian, perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan semakin lama semakin maju dengan munculnya ilmu-ilmu baru yang pada akhirnya memunculkan pula sub-sub ilmu pengetahuan baru bahkan kearah ilmu pengetahuan yang lebih khusus lagi seperti spesialisasi-spesialisasi. Oleh karena itu tepatlah apa yang dikemukakan oleh Van Peursen (1985), bahwa ilmu pengetahuan dapat dilihat sebagai suatu sistem yang jalin-menjalin dan taat asas (konsisten) dari ungkapan-ungkapan yang sifat benar-tidaknya dapat ditentukan.
Terlepas dari berbagai macam pengelompokkan atau pembagian dalam ilmu pengetahuan, sejak F.Bacon (1561-1626) mengembangkan semboyannya “Knowledge Is Power”, kita dapat mensinyalir bahwa peranan ilmu pengetahuan terhadap kehidupan manusia, baik individual maupun sosial menjadi sangat menentukan. Karena itu implikasi yang timbul menurut Koento Wibisono (1984), adalah bahwa ilmu yang satu sangat erat hubungannya dengan cabang ilmu yang lain serta semakin kaburnya garis batas antara ilmu dasar-murni atau teoritis dengan ilmu terapan atau praktis.
Untuk mengatasi gap antara ilmu yang satu dengan ilmu yang lainnya, dibutuhkan suatu bidang ilmu yang dapat menjembatani serta mewadahi perbedaan yang muncul.Oleh karena itu, maka bidang filsafatlah yang mampu mengatasi hal tersebut. Hal ini senada dengan pendapat Immanuel Kant (dalam Kunto Wibisono dkk., 1997) yang menyatakan bahwa filsafat merupakan disiplin ilmu yang mampu menunjukkan batas-batas dan ruang lingkup pengetahuan manusia secara tepat. Oleh sebab itu Francis Bacon (dalam The Liang Gie, 1999) menyebut filsafat sebagai ibu agung dari ilmu-ilmu (the great mother of the sciences).
Lebih lanjut Koento Wibisono dkk.(1997) menyatakan, karena pengetahuan ilmiah atau ilmu merupakan “a higher level of knowledge”, maka lahirlah filsafat ilmu sebagai penerusan pengembangan filsafat pengetahuan. Filsafat ilmu sebagai cabang filsafat menempatkan objek sasarannya: Ilmu (Pengetahuan). Bidang garapan filsafat ilmu terutama diarahkan pada komponen-komponen yang menjadi tiang penyangga bagi eksistensi ilmu yaitu: ontologi, epistemologi dan aksiologi. Hal ini didukung oleh Israel Scheffler (dalam The Liang Gie, 1999), yang berpendapat bahwa filsafat ilmu mencari pengetahuan umum tentang ilmu atau tentang dunia sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh ilmu.
Interaksi antara ilmu dan filsafat mengandung arti bahwa filsafat dewasa ini tidak dapat berkembang dengan baik jika terpisah dari ilmu.Ilmu tidak dapat tumbuh dengan baik tanpa kritik dari filsafat. Dengan mengutip ungkapan dari Michael Whiteman (dalam Koento Wibisono dkk.1997), bahwa ilmu kealaman persoalannya dianggap bersifat ilmiah karena terlibat dengan persoalan-persoalan filsafati sehingga memisahkan satu dari yang lain tidak mungkin. Sebaliknya, banyak persoalan filsafati sekarang sangat memerlukan landasan pengetahuan ilmiah supaya argumentasinya tidak salah.Lebih jauh, Jujun S. Suriasumantri (1982:22), –dengan meminjam pemikiran Will Durant– menjelaskan hubungan antara ilmu dengan filsafat dengan mengibaratkan filsafat sebagai pasukan marinir yang berhasil merebut pantai untuk pendaratan pasukan infanteri.Pasukan infanteri ini adalah sebagai pengetahuan yang diantaranya adalah ilmu.Filsafatlah yang memenangkan tempat berpijak bagi kegiatan keilmuan.Setelah itu, ilmulah yang membelah gunung dan merambah hutan, menyempurnakan kemenangan ini menjadi pengetahuan yang dapat diandalkan.
Untuk melihat hubungan antara filsafat dan ilmu, ada baiknya kita lihat pada perbandingan antara ilmu dengan filsafat dalam bagan di bawah ini, (disarikan dari Drs. Agraha Suhandi, 1992)
Ilmu Filsafat
Segi-segi yang dipelajari dibatasi agar dihasilkan rumusan-rumusan yang pasti 
Obyek penelitian yang terbatas
Tidak menilai obyek dari suatu sistem nilai tertentu.
Bertugas memberikan jawaban Mencoba merumuskan pertanyaan atas jawaban. Mencari prinsip-prinsip umum, tidak membatasi segi pandangannya bahkan cenderung memandang segala sesuatu secara umum dan keseluruhan
Keseluruhan yang ada
Menilai obyek renungan dengan suatu makna, misalkan , religi, kesusilaan, keadilan dsb.
Bertugas mengintegrasikan ilmu-ilmu

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